The Marxist playbook

2022.01.28 21:51 ADdreaming The Marxist playbook

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2022.01.28 21:51 Alarmed-Ad-6358 Studying a course at university.

I would really appreciate some help.
I have just been put down about the course I want to study come September.
I want to study interior design, their saying that it’s not worth studying.
So should I just completely forget it and not bother, should I just give up and do something else?
I dunno, my friend has made me feel really shit. So like am I being stupid, should I just I don’t even know, I don’t know how to feel, they have just turned around and said it’s a super niche industry, but it’s what I want to do. I dunno I just feel like shit now and making me rethink everything:/
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2022.01.28 21:51 juyhdtrserfvs 14m looking for teens to trade with - wickr and kik are both jimmyd951102

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2022.01.28 21:51 Baigoir Where did the "1 round equals 6 seconds rule" come from, and would this be a good work-around?

Why is one round 6 seconds? It feels like it is an awkwardly short amount of time from a narrative standpoint. Especially if there are a lot of characters on the board, it seems like there is no way for characters to react to actions other characters take, make their own actions, and possibly RP and still be within 6 seconds. It also feels very anticlimactic to have an epic battle take less than one minute in "real-life" time.
Would it then be game-breaking to house-rule something like this: combat rounds take an indeterminant amount of time, but spells/abilities would take an equivalent amount of rounds to cast/resolve? Outside of combat spells would act normally. For example, a spell that takes one minute to cast would still take 10 rounds, as would an ability that lasts one minute. Once out of combat, it would simply take/last one minute.
Am I over-complicating things? For some reason this bothers me more than it should.
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2022.01.28 21:51 sippinteabythesea Hmmmm… is he thinking about Jessica 🤔

Hmmmm… is he thinking about Jessica 🤔 submitted by sippinteabythesea to KeepingUpwTheAldeans [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 21:51 DixieND2 mod help?

my reskins are just not working and im not sure why not can someone help?
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2022.01.28 21:51 propheticGXXSE Info on age and authenticity of this?

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2022.01.28 21:51 Drewsky32 NAK Request For Appeal

Came across this when I was searching their website for the information I saw posted back in Oct. '21.
I don't have time to read through it at the time of posting, but wanted to leave it here in case someone else takes the time to do so. If we're more informed, we can potentially find ways to support the project more strongly, or perhaps use it as a bull thesis for the deep value investment opportunity that it is.
It's important that this project be passed so that we can really push green energy as well as having our own domestic resource for precious metals. We don't want to have to rely on foreign powers for this as it would be a nightmare for American tax payers due to the additional incurred costs of importation.
If no one reads through the important bits and provides a TLDR for us by the time I can, I'll do my best to provide a DD.
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2022.01.28 21:51 lunarlilylove33355 This is cringe

So I remember I look up encanto and toys I think so I find a white wash Dolores btw I'm writing on rif is fun on this account its my alt Its like reddit because it is a reddit app you can log in using your reddit account
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2022.01.28 21:51 shah_1989 Truth

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2022.01.28 21:51 CrinTCM WFL?

Me: 6b Them: 2 otters
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2022.01.28 21:51 Dry_Analyst_5913 Got in to cola what should I do now ?

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2022.01.28 21:51 myusernamewastaken5 Need help with buying food and gas, any help is appreciated

Out of work and running low on food and gas, need help. Any and all help is appreciated, thanks guys
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2022.01.28 21:51 PlusUltraa_ The flatbreads are always great

The flatbreads are always great submitted by PlusUltraa_ to hellofresh [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 21:51 CharlieandtheRed Offering NFR Flare Snow Owl for Luminous Snow Owl -- Will Add 2 Dodo Each, Can Do Many Times

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2022.01.28 21:51 Fleetfootedfire Precocious Psychosis (Pandemic Pain part 3)

I close curtains with darkest covers
I am certain I am being watched be forces unknown
I hear voices clear as day
I lay in my bed in total terror
Within in these walls I must stay
to Leave my castle would be a fatal error
Unable to see friends from before
Im no longer sad or mad
there are friends in my head
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2022.01.28 21:51 x___o0o___x What's your favorite book?

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2022.01.28 21:51 TheDongIsUnbreakable Which one is better for Yae?

Which one is better for Yae? submitted by TheDongIsUnbreakable to YaeMiko [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 21:51 baegirlbae Dating as an ace is so lonely, right now I just want someone I can cuddle with on a regular basis

I do want a relationship if it comes to that. For now, I just really want someone I can cuddle and have deep conversations with.
I’m 22f from the uk, I live in London and would prefer to meet someone who is from London. I doubt I will meet someone who lives in London, still with a try.
Must have good hygiene and the body type I prefer is slim (don’t need to be proper fit or have abs). I like gentlemen.
Message me if you’re interested.
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2022.01.28 21:51 AsForMeImPerdHapley Getting hired as a recruiter with a assault charge on record?

----- I've got other throwaways for life advice, but I'm here for job advice. ---
I'm not a violent person. I've never had a criminal record before. I'm largely considered a goofy and funny and good natured person. I have about 3 years of recruiting experience, good experience.. top performer in bay area at Robert Half.
I got caught up in drugs and took something I shouldn't have any lost my mind. I've never hurt someone before, never been violent before, but I lost my damn mind and walked across the street and struck someone random in the face, fracturing their jaw. I wasn't in control of my body for any of it. I've been party hardy drunk before, where you're there, making bad decisions, but you're still in control. I was absolutely not in control. My body was moving itself.
After I struck or tussled with the person (they can't remember what happened) They hit me with a 2x4, I then apparently remarked "that's good" like a cartoon character and walked directly into a bramble patch where I waited until my senses were returned to me and I was arrested.
I've cleaned myself up, offered everything possible to the victim in terms of making amends, restitution, etc.. No one deserves to have what happened to them happen to them. And I can give all the details about how remorseful I am and how I ended up helping with the person on their construction site for two weeks after the incident.. But now I find myself in a predicament.
I'm facing down a felony assault charge, with an offer of a misdemeanor assault (and the works). But either way it goes, every background check is going to show up "X-person, assaulterman." Which... I dunno. I mean, I can't imagine a situation in my years of recruiting where I'd hire that person.
What would you do?
I don't want to throw in the towel on corporate life. I know I can get a misdemeanor expunged in 3 years but in the mean time I'm walking around with a scarlet letter. I really don't want to roll the dice at trial where I'll most likely lose because the thing happened, it doesn't matter that it shouldn't have happened. I'd rather not try to learn a new career that's more friendly towards people with a record. I love recruiting. I love helping people find great jobs and I love helping people find great candidates, it really fulfills me.
I know the market is hot, but I honestly have no idea how to approach this situation. A cover letter saying "Hey I'm a good boy but I fucked up, BUT I learned from it and am definitely not going down that road again" doesn't feel like it's going to get me a job.
And I can't exactly pretend I don't have anything going on. If I just omit the details I get a job offer and it suddenly goes away when the background check comes back and essentially says "Assault Charge Pending"
I just want a job. I want to work my ass off, do good for everyone involved, and be able to support myself. I just want to keep my head down and work and be a person again, but my life has basically fallen apart since this happened half a year ago and I've been unable to find a job.
Any advice? Any thoughts? Anyone hiring? I'm in Seattle, though everything's remote these days. I'll likely be evicted in a month due to the circumstances and my no longer existent finances, so I guess I could move anywhere. My life collapsed around me and I don't know what to do anymore and I'm scared. I'm stuck in analysis paralysis and depression and it's getting dark in my head. I just want to go back to being a normal nice human being who contributes to society.
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2022.01.28 21:51 Superchecker TransLink looks ahead thru 2050/Big ideas

TransLink looks ahead thru 2050/Big ideas submitted by Superchecker to vancouver [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 21:51 kabukistar MRW I'm a millennial and I go onto TikTok to see what the kids are up to

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2022.01.28 21:51 EmpressAshley 22 [MTF4F] (Cis ok) Looking for a partner in or around Virginia

Hey! I'm Ashley and I'm from Front Royal. I'm looking for people in Virginia, West Virginia, or Maryland. I'm not able to do long distance for an extended period of time, as I'd like to see my partner at least once a month. I'm willing to drive to you or have you drive to me. If you wanna chat, feel free to DM.
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2022.01.28 21:51 PotentialHearing4760 Anyone know who this person is?

Anyone know who this person is? submitted by PotentialHearing4760 to PokemonGoRaids [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 21:51 koreanshakespeare Notes on "Aristotle's Poetics for Screenwriters" [Part 2 of 2]

Here are my notes on Michael Tierno's "Aristotle's Poetics for Screenwriters" (Hachette Books, 2012).
I collected sentences that made me think, bolded words that made me ponder, and jotted those wandering thoughts under the heading of "MUSINGS."
Why are you doing this?
Because this is how William Shakespeare learned to write at Stratford Grammar School.
Shakespeare's education was largely composed of 1) studying Greek/Latin classics 2) memorizing key passages and 3) annotating one's thoughts on the margins.
I watched on YouTube that all great artists had role models from whom they drew inspiration and guidance.
Picasso, Diego Velazquez.
Virgil, Homer.
Shakespeare, Ovid.
My role model is Shakespeare because he wrote in a format quite close to Screenplay. A "play" for the "screen" -- that is my understanding of what "Screenplay" is. I believe that Hollywood's roots go all the way back to Greek theatre and that it is our duty, as aspiring Screenwriters, to bring back to life the wisdom, the stories, and the passions of our forebears -- our "senpai," as the Japanese would say.
Just as we can train Artificial Intelligence to play chess or to compose music through "Deep Learning," I believe that one can improve at the craft of storytelling through "Education."
This is my attempt at "Deep Learning" -- the same rigorous training in cinema that Quentin Tarantino underwent every day at "Video Archive" in Manhattan Beach.
And I'm sharing my journey here on Screenwriting in the hopes of inspiring the next generation of screenwriters, as many others here have inspired me. If I fail, learn from my failures. If I succeed, learn from my success.
What do you hope to achieve?
First and foremost, moral character.
If there is anything I learned from Aristotle, it's the importance of "ethics."
To be human, being "likable", and forming lasting relationships -- it all starts with a sense of morality.
Throughout my life, I've pretended to be many things I wasn't.
When it comes to Screenwriting, I don't wish to "pretend."
I wish to know.
Because it's the one thing that I enjoyed doing as a child.
Clarify the form
The outline follows the chronology of Tierno's book, the chapter headings.
"TIERNO WRITES" collects mind-provoking sentences from the book.
"MUSINGS" enumerates emanating thoughts.
Google Doc Link for PHOTO NOTES
Google Doc Link for FULL TEXT
For teaser, let's kick off with Tarantino's advice (start 17:20) to aspiring screenwriters.
29. The Non-Linear Soul of Quentin Tarantino
TIERNO writes:

  1. Perhaps the reason Tarantino is able to be convincing with his unique style of plot bending is because in all his writing he says what he really feels, from his own unique perspective.
MUSINGS: “I just had a very interesting conversation with huge [Hollywood] executives the other day and they... told me... one of those golden secrets on the studio side of the gate that I think you writers should know... Back when I started out... the whole thing was you go into your bedroom and close the door... and pour your heart and soul into some spec script and put it out there... and that’s yours, [it] says who you are... and [the Hollywood executives] were saying that really isn’t the way anymore... that [for] a lot of writers their whole thing is to get into the writer’s room of a TV show. That’s like the big thing to do [now]...”
“But I’m talking to huge [Hollywood] executives... and [they tell me] they’re looking for that spec script and people aren’t writing them. People are trying to get jobs. But before, we got jobs by pouring our hearts and souls into our masterpieces and maybe this will never get made but at least you could see that I could write... you got a sense of our voices, a sense of what we had to offer and it was undiluted you…”
“People might want to change it... water it down, or bring somebody else to do some writing on it but what made them [Hollywood executives] gravitate toward it was your voice. I’m just telling you – if you want to go into your bedroom and lock the door and three months later, come out with a Screenplay – I’ve heard from big people: they’re waiting to read those. They want to read them. They want to read that diamond script by that person they’ve never heard of before... And they’re not reading that material lately. So I think that’s what they call ‘an opportunity in the marketplace.’ And I want to pass it on to you all. Thank you very much.” - Quentin Tarantino (Jan. 21, 2020 Final Draft Hall of Fame Award Acceptance Speech)

For members of Screenwriting
January 28, 2022
16. “It Scared Me Because I Saw It Coming” . . . The Rolls Royce of Complex Plots
TIERNO writes:
  1. For Aristotle, what we would call the Rolls Royce of complex plots is one in which the discovery is a “big surprise.” And not just a big surprise, a probable or even predictable surprise!
MUSINGS: The element of “surprise” at Climax must be carefully thought-out and planned from the very beginning.
TIERNO writes:
  1. This is possible because the story plants little hints for the audience, but not enough to give the surprise away. It’s kind of like knowing someone is planning a surprise party for you; there are clues but you’re never 100 percent sure.
MUSINGS: Beginning from Page 1, clues regarding the eventual “reversal of fortune” should be sowed here and there to collectively blossom as one significant “moment of truth” at Climax.
TIERNO writes:
  1. It would be a special-effects Hollywood bomb deriving its juice from spectacle, a tendency of weak dramas that Aristotle warned us to avoid, so long ago.
MUSINGS: Do not spend more than a sentence or two to describe “spectacular scenes.” That’s the Director’s job. Remember Shakespeare’s one-line stage direction for the most “spectacular” scene (a man gets eaten by a bear) in all of his plays: “Exit, pursued by a bear” (Winter’s Tale, Act 3 Scene 3).”
17. The Devil Is in the Realistic Details of the Plot of Angel Heart
TIERNO writes:
  1. Aristotle tells us that in the dramatic plots, “improbable deeds” should be kept in back story (before the play), because drama needs to be realistic to work. All “artifice” or things outside of known reality, including the power of gods and devils, must occur outside of what we see on screen.
MUSINGS: Difficult-to-understand concepts should be peripheral to the Story. What we “see” on Screen must be 100% believable. Screenplays should be written not only for the elites but so even the most ordinary Joe can read, understand and appreciate.
TIERNO writes:
  1. The simple reason is, drama works best if it only shows a level of reality that is recognizable.
MUSINGS: Setting can be anywhere but the conflict must be eerily familiar – any audience member ought to be able to see himself/herself in that world struggling with the same issue.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Angel Heart works its magic on us every step of the way by using structure instead of spectacle.
MUSINGS: “Spectacles” are cheap. They’re merely icings on a cake. “Spectacular” Storytelling is rather achieved by how “relatable” the Protagonist is, how easy it is to follow the “logic” of the story, and how stirring of the heart the “dialogue” is.
18. Whatever Causes the Action Better Be Up There on the Screen
TIERNO writes:
  1. To Aristotle, “character” refers strictly to the moral quality of a person revealed through his or her thoughts and the actions stemming from these thoughts.
MUSINGS: The centerpiece of a man’s “character” is his “morals.” When you don’t like somebody, it’s usually because you find that person morally repulsive.
TIERNO writes:
  1. For example, if you plot to rob a bank, you must first “think” about taking such an action before performing it. But it’s the thought behind this action that reveals your “character,” isn’t it?
MUSINGS: Focus on Character’s “Intention”, which may differ from “Outwardly Purpose” – the #1 theme of Shakespeare’s plays (appearance vs. reality).
TIERNO writes:
  1. In other words, if you are robbing a bank to pay for your girlfriend’s diamond necklace, you’re a “bad person.” But if you’re robbing a bank to feed the homeless people, that reveals a different “character.”
MUSINGS: Dramatic irony can be effectively created when the audience alone and not other characters knows the true intention of the Protagonist. We know Hamlet “acts” mad because we’ve been let privy to his “true intention” (to get revenge) in Act 1 Scene 1. Thus, he is “good” (avenges father’s death) and “bad” (gets Ophelia and others unnecessarily killed) at the same time – which is how “depth” is created.
TIERNO writes:
  1. It’s the same in movies: The “thought” that leads to the key actions reveals the “character” of the hero in the story and must be of a nature that arouses the audience’s pity and fear.
MUSINGS: After all is said and done, it is “intention” that matters the most.
TIERNO writes:
  1. We have seen that he truly regrets his behavior and have known him to be a moral character, so we relate to him.
MUSINGS: One powerful way the audience can “identify” with the Protagonist is to emphasize the “goodness” of his/her heart.
19. A Movie Gave You a Bad Case of Pity and Fear? The Doctor Recommends a Catharsis
TIERNO writes:
  1. According to Aristotle, catharsis works best if everything in the story builds toward creating this one experience.
MUSINGS: The entirety of Screenplay should serve as pyre for the fire to burn – catharsis.
TIERNO writes:
  1. The key is to understand that catharsis doesn’t just “happen” in the final moments of a movie; it builds throughout the story up until the final release.
MUSINGS: Every page, character, and incident must gravitate towards the Screenplay’s moment of highest emotional engagement – Climax.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Jack not only dies to save Rose, but suffers intensely in doing so. The combination of physical suffering and emotional suffering helps intensify the emotions of the audience, who, feeling the tragedy in their very bones, are swept away.
MUSINGS: The more “pain” the Protagonist endures in body and heart, the greater “satisfaction” there is for the audience.
TIERNO writes:
  1. This intense physical suffering allows the audience to experience a deeper catharsis when it comes.
MUSINGS: “Surrogate satisfaction” is what theater-goers pay for. The actoactress is the lamb of sacrifice.
TIERNO writes:
  1. It comes when the much older Rose finally lies down in her cabin bed and dies, joining Jack in heaven. This is where the audience releases their burden of pity and fear and finally experiences catharsis.
MUSINGS: In Titanic, “catharsis” occurs when Rose (Kate Winslet) dies and joins Jack (Leonardo DiCaprio) in Heaven. That is when the audience is able to “let go” of their pent-up emotions.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Titanic teaches us an important lesson in structure: Just as the plot must build to the reversal of fortune/discovery moment, so must catharsis.
MUSINGS: The purpose of “Structure” is to effectively build-up emotional momentum for the “final release” of bottled-up passions.
TIERNO writes:
  1. In other words, you must keep catharsis in mind as you structure the plot of your screenplay. The entire plot of Titanic leading up to the scene where Jack dies and Rose is saved builds in a way that makes us really care about the couple and their relationship.
MUSINGS: The raison d'être of Plot is “catharsis.” Sex without sweating – can we say it was genuine? Similarly, the audience must “sweat” tears.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Jack and Rose are in essence a “joint protagonist,” inseparable in death as in life. Their fate affirms that it is in eternal love that the meaning of life resides – the story’s theme.
MUSINGS: “Theme” is one truth about the human existence the Screenwriter wishes to convey to the world. “Theme” is the moral of the story. “Theme” is the feeling the Screenplay evokes.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Although Aristotle teaches us that catharsis is aided by all the spectacle the medium of drama has to offer, it’s essentially structure that does the trick.
MUSINGS: What is “Structure”? It is the most efficient way to set up the “explosion of emotions” at Climax – the ultimate reason why people go to theaters.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Not that having Leo, Kate, a billion dollars, and a little Celine Dion hurt Titanic. It’s just that, without great structure, Titanic the movie would have sunk faster than the real doomed ocean liner did.
MUSINGS: Structure is the “overall strategy” for war. Glory from a single victory won’t matter if the entire war is lost. From Page 1, eyes must be on the moment of “catharsis.”
20. Action Speaks Louder Than Words, and Together They Can Speak Volumes!
TIERNO writes:
  1. When dialog complements action, a screenplay can speak volumes.
MUSINGS: Action first – characters should constantly be moving, or at least be trying – then, words. What is “dialogue”? It is commentary on what somebody has said or done – “gossip.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Indeed, the kernel of truth the screenwriter is seeking to convey must be clearly articulated early in the writing process:
MUSINGS: Every Screenwriter must first be a philosopher. Like a PhD Dissertation, a Screenplay must reference while contributing something entirely new to the “on-going discussion” of mankind’s greatest minds – Homer, Ovid, and Shakespeare, just to name a few. Screenwriting’s objective is to reveal some “truth” about what it means to be human at this particular moment in time, for posterity to one day look and remember us.
21. The Perfect Hollywood Sad/Happy Plot versus the Perfect Poetics Sad Plot
  1. Pity is occasioned by undeserved misfortune, and fear by that of one like ourselves
MUSINGS: “Pity” is bad things happening to good people. “Fear” is imagining them happening to us. “Fear” and “Pity” must both be expunged at Climax – catharsis.
22. Move Your Audience by Teaching Them What They Already Know
TIERNO writes:
  1. Pity, fear, and catharsis come not from learning new esoteric facts but from a re-cognition of what one already thinks and feels.
MUSINGS: After first becoming a Philosopher, a Screenwriter must then become a Psychologist. A Screenplay must rekindle ancient human fears and provoke hard-wired response systems. “Fear” must be pursued by “Action.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Scenes that are presented need not be based on the particulars of people’s lives, but on archetypical experience.
MUSINGS: Screenplay must tap into the “collective unconscious.” How? By “triggering” inherited fears and “casting” universal aspirations.
TIERNO writes:
  1. This is why it’s important to build actions on “universals” – to substantiate universal truths about the human condition through the action of the plot.
MUSINGS: Hollywood craves archetypal plots, archetypal characters, and archetypal themes.
TIERNO writes:
  1. It represents a reality that audiences understand easily so they can recognize themselves and be moved emotionally.
MUSINGS: In order for the audience's hearts to be touched, they should feel close enough to the character’s world to touch it. They ought to be able to see themselves in the Protagonist. “The play’s the thing wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. The genius of It’s a Wonderful Life is that it succeeds in telling us about life because it shows us our own life.
MUSINGS: No matter what time period or region the Screenplay is set, it must hold mirror up to nature – “to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure.”
23. The Good, the Bad, and the Intermediate Hero
  1. When Aristotle says a hero must be good, he means that the hero must be tending toward goodness. It’s this intermediate kind of hero that audiences relate to because they imagine themselves as both good and bad, or human.
MUSINGS: “Complex” Character has morally redeeming qualities (Black Snyder’s “Save the Cat” moment) despite exhibiting antisocial tendencies. But it’s the “orientation of the heart” that matters. The Hero/Heroine may be Bad and Ugly, but his/her heart must veer towards “Good.”
24. It’s the Thought Behind the Action That Counts: Creating the Tone of Your Screenplay
TIERNO writes:
  1. Thus we see how, within the framework of ONE COMPLETE ACTION, the moral attributes of the “agents” revealed through the reasoning behind their actions give your story its tone.
MUSINGS: “Tone” is established by “intentions.”
25. How to Cheat If You Can’t Hire a While Chorus
TIERNO writes:
  1. Notice how the “chorus” in this movie makes appearances, comments on the action, embellishes its meaning and emotional impact, while not really adding anything to the plot.
MUSINGS: In Screenplay, secondary characters can play the role of the Greek “chorus” by – providing rich commentary (“gossip”), clarifying character intentions, and feeding backstory to stoke emotional engagement.
TIERNO writes:
  1. You can have all kinds of secondary characters commenting on the action.
MUSINGS: Purpose of supporting actors/actresses is to provide “food for fodder” in the form of “juicy gossip.” Remember that “Reservoir Dogs” (1992), the film that launched Quentin Tarantino’s career, starts with EIGHT MEN dressed in BLACK SUITS gossiping. And so does every play by Shakespeare.
TIERNO writes:
  1. For a quick example of this, consider The Terminator, where Reese is held in the police station and questioned by a psychiatrist, who thinks he’s crazy. The shrink and the cops are a perfect example of “chorus” commenting on the action.
MUSINGS: Great dialogue is juicy gossip. The same elements that make the latter should apply to the former. They are: 1) Surprise – “appearance” is shattered and the “real him/her” is revealed; 2) Scandalous – sex, power, and threats; and 3) Secretive – only a few must be in the know.
26. How to Create Characters That Are Really Really Really Alive
TIERNO writes:
  1. First, make them good enough that we can root for them.
MUSINGS: Aristotle considered “goodness of heart” to be the #1 quality of a Tragic Hero. This was revealed by Hero’s “intention”. The “goodness of heart” can be expressed through noble moral purpose.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Second, make them “appropriate,” meaning give them characteristics that make sense for the type of person they are.
MUSINGS: What Aristotle meant here is “propriety.” Characters must behave in ways befitting their social rank. Human brain responds to hierarchy and structure.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Third, make them human – give them flaws or quirks that make us believe that they exist.
MUSINGS: To be human is to be “flawed” but nevertheless to strive for “goodness”.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Finally, whatever characteristics you do give them, make sure you keep them there throughout the length of the screenplay. As Aristotle says, make sure they are “consistently inconsistent.”
MUSINGS: Old habits die hard. Character flaws should remain unchanged until Climax. Anagnorisis (“recognition”) – which Aristotle defined as a crucial moment wherein Protagonist undergoes “a change from ignorance to knowledge” concerning oneself or others – may result in Character defects being overcome.
TIERNO writes:
  1. In another passage, Aristotle elaborates on what he means by making a character realistic. One again, he uses painting as an analogy:
MUSINGS: Cubism was invented by Aristotle.
  1. The poet in like manner, in portraying men quick or slow to anger, or with similar infirmities of character, must know how to represent them as such, and at the same time as good men…
MUSINGS: Aristotle’s recommended characterization is Cubist – capture multiple perspectives in one.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Rocky, trying in a larger-than-life way to be more than a bum from the neighborhood, is still oddly recognizable as a regular guy.
MUSINGS: ACTION should be colossal – man, ordinary. People like those who are like themselves or whom they’d like to be. Protagonist’s flaws should be “likable” and accomplishments “admirable.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Nutritive Life. Do you wonder about your characters’ eating habits? Wouldn’t that tell you (and your audience) a lot about them? Don’t your eating habits say a lot about you? You should brainstorm as much as you can to get a clear picture of what the eating habits of your characters might be, to gather clues about who they are.
MUSINGS: You are what you eat – culinary preferences can speak volumes about Protagonist’s nature.
TIERNO writes:
  1. I mean, when Rocky gets up at 4 a.m. and drinks four raw eggs, isn’t that worth a gazillion pages of psychological notes on him? That image is so powerful and evocative that you know without further elaboration that he is serious about this boxing match.
MUSINGS: The three necessities of life – “clothing,” “food,” and “shelter” – are also powerful tools for Characterization.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Look at Lester Burnham. What does he eat? By the end of his transformation from miserable mid-life-crisis guy to seeker of eternal youth, he’s blending and drinking health drinks. What could tell us more about Lester’s new attitude toward life?
MUSINGS: Character transformation can be indicated through dietary changes.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Desiring Life. At the heart of all action is the desire of the hero. Basic human desire is really what makes characters come alive on the screen.
MUSINGS: Protagonist’s heart is his “desire” – and it should beat on every page. “Desire” should be universal, easily recognizable and readily identifiable. Numero uno among Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is “self-actualization” – the fulfilling of one’s God-given talent.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Desiring is at the heart of what it means to be a living, breathing human being.
MUSINGS: To be human is to desire. Pero que? “What a man can be, he must be.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Sensitive Life. It goes without saying that our five senses are a big part of being alive.
MUSINGS: Screenplay must convey what Protagonist sees, hears, touches, tastes, and smells.
TIERNO writes:
  1. In cinema, perhaps the most important sense in regard to character development is visual perception. Great screenwriters know how to feed information to the audience through the eyes of characters, such as when Lester sees Angela at the pep rally and fantasizes about her.
MUSINGS: When brainstorming a Scene, perhaps the first question to ask is: whose point-of-view is it?
TIERNO writes:
  1. Showing how characters actually see things with their own eyes enables the audience to experience “causes” of the action.
MUSINGS: There are three “gazes” in a Scene – that of 1) Audience, 2) Protagonist, and 3) Other Characters. “Suspense” creeps in when spectators cannot see what’s coming. “Dramatic Irony,” when they do.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Locomotion. Carefully depicting movement is vital to a screenplay.
MUSINGS: Screenplay should never stand “still.” It should constantly be moving.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Capacity for Rational Thought. Thinking about the mind and thought processes of people can be a fun way to brainstorm characters into existence.
MUSINGS: “Crimes of passion” are most coldly ruminated and carefully reasoned in Shakespeare’s plays. Soliloquy is pageantry of the thinking mind. Characters should be distinguished by their “thinking process.”
27. Dialog Is a Piece of the Action
TIERNO writes:
  1. I’ve covered screenplays where the writers will start off with great dialog, but by the middle of the script I’m already bored... What’s wrong? The same thing that’s always wrong: The plot has not been adequately built. Dialog is part of the action and gets its power from the plot, whose effect builds in a cumulative as well as linear way.
MUSINGS: “Action” should happen first, “Dialogue” second.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Dialog forms story action and derives life and energy from the action it helps build. This is a symbiotic relationship.
MUSINGS: “Action” and “Dialogue” should build each other’s momentum.
TIERNO writes:
  1. For a simple demonstration, if I say the line, “They’re here,” it’s not a great line of dialog. But in Poltergeist, when it’s the young child announcing the arrival of a house full of ghosts, it’s brilliant, because it’s concise but moves us into a new stage of the plot (we now want to find out exactly what’s “here” and why this child is so attuned to the new invisible guests).
MUSINGS: Stale lines can see fresh light of day if accompanied by spirited movements. “Dialogue” should stoke curiosity, excitement, or apprehension about what “Action” might follow. In Volleyball, offense (“Action”) begins with the setter (“Dialogue”).
TIERNO writes:
  1. Not only can elaborate dialog obscure thought, sometimes dialog that is “straight on the nose” can ruin a scene when characters say exactly what is on their minds and there is no sub-text to what they are saying.
MUSINGS: “Depth” is engendered when “Content” diverges “Intent,” which is divulged by “Action.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. What’s not said, or the inner thoughts of the characters, is often more dynamic to an audience, so it’s not a good idea to have characters saying exactly what’s on their minds but to use dialog to imply what they are thinking.
MUSINGS: The best art is implied. “Dialogue” should hint at Character’s thoughts, but rarely betray them outright. It should always also leave “room for interpretation.”
28. If the Pitch Doesn’t Fill Me with Horror and Pity, the Movie Won’t Either
TIERNO writes:
  1. Aristotle tells us that just by being told the basic plot, listeners should be moved by it, just as they would be when watching it enacted on the screen.
MUSINGS: A great Screenplay begins with a great logline. A Screenplay’s systematic flaws will manifest themselves as “symptoms” in the logline, according to Christopher Lockhert (Story Editor at WILLIAM MORRIS ENDEAVOR). A logline must have three components: 1) Protagonist 2) Protagonist’s Objective and 3) Obstacle to Protagonist’s Objective.
29. The Non-Linear Soul of Quentin Tarantino
TIERNO writes:
  1. To understand what I mean, consider the following Poetics passage: “As far as may be, too, the poet should even act his story with the very gestures of his personages. Given some natural qualifications, he who feels the emotions described will be the most convincing; distress and anger, for instance, are portrayed most truthfully by one who is feeling them at the moment.”
MUSINGS: For Screenplay to be “convincing” and “moving” the Screenwriter must first be convinced and moved. Writing is a non-fungible token (NFT) of visceral human emotions. For the Audience to feel those “stirrings of the heart” from the safety of their sofas is the purpose of Screenwriting.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Quentin Tarantino is great at what he does because there is an “authentic feel” to his movies: They seem to come right from his heart and soul.
MUSINGS: For Aristotle, being fully “authentic” meant two things: 1) being fully “human” and 2) being fully “you”. The first is achieved by exercising the unique faculty distinguishing humans from animals – reason, best realized through ethical/virtual living. The second, by fulfilling one’s God-given talent/purpose (telos).
TIERNO writes:
  1. Instead of “write what you know,” Aristotle is telling you to write what you can truly feel, or truly experience in your heart.
MUSINGS: Aristotle’s #1 criterion for judging Screenplays is “emotional engagement.” And to convey emotion, Screenwriter must first feel it. “Hence it is that poetry demands a man with a special gift for it, or else one with a touch of madness in him.”
30. If Your Story Were a Musical, Where Would the Numbers Be?
TIERNO writes:
  1. During Oedipus Rex, the chorus would come out in intervals and sing and chant different long, beautiful, haunting passages (pleasurable accessories) without advancing the plot one iota. However, the chorus developed the magnitude of the story, making it seem more frightening, more intense, and more real. It evoked a strong sense of the gods.
MUSINGS: “Secondary Characters” are blind men trying to figure out who the elephant (“Protagonist”) in the room is.
TIERNO writes:
  1. If one or two actors stand around the stage and say, “Oedipus, the gods are after you. You’re in trouble,” that’s only a little scary. On the other hand, if a line of 100 chorus members sing and chant, questioning the “meaning” of Apollo’s prediction about Oedipus’s fate over and over again without advancing the plot, isn’t this scarier? Isn’t this design more effective than having the plot throw on more and more linear incidents that must be absorbed by the audience?
MUSINGS: Sometimes, having 100 people say or react can better emphasize a point than having additional episodes, which can be hard to digest.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Angel Heart uses repetitious images to comment on the action, a perfect example of the ways in which a film can expand on the basic dramatic storytelling tools from Aristotle’s day.
MUSINGS: In Screenplays, “flashbacks” can serve the role of “chorus.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Dramatic story is indeed like song. All intense dramatic stories build toward the hero’s change in fortune both in a linear and songlike cumulative fashion with “refrains” as variations and repetitions of the ACTION-IDEA.
MUSINGS: Each Scene should be a derivative of the Climactic moment.
31. History Repeats Itself . . . Real and Imagined
TIERNO writes:
  1. As a script reader, I’m surprised screenwriters don’t use history more often to give a “framework” to their stories, as well as a flavor of reality. This tool really works, because as Aristotle was well aware, using the past helps convince the audience of the reality of your story, because elements of it have really happened.
MUSINGS: Even if depicting a fictional world, Screenplay should be grounded in a particular moment in history.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Even the most obscure story will have a certain vibe to it if it really happened. It will just feel real. It convinces because it is possible, and is possible because it happened.
MUSINGS: Non-fiction wields “magical” power simply for the reason that it really happened.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Another good way to use history is to incorporate into your screenplay that which has become absorbed into society as common myth and legend.
MUSINGS: For “universal appeal,” Screenplay must tap into mankind's common operating software. Carl Jung called it “collective unconscious”. Folktales and parables are “instruction manuals” into that oblivion.
TIERNO writes:
  1. For example, there is the famous legend that the mafia got Frank Sinatra the role in From Here to Eternity — whether or not this is true is irrelevant. The Godfather alludes to this piece of “history,” when Don Corleone “entices” the movie producer to give Johnny Fontaine a role.
MUSINGS: “Urban myths” can provide a surfeit of sensational “fillers” as well as historical context. Shakespeare liked to open his plays (ex. “Antony and Cleopatra”) with common folks engaging in salacious “talk of the town.” The groundlings’ favorite past-time was likely being mirrored.
32. Aristotle’s Take on the Importance of Drama
TIERNO writes:
  1. It’s part of our human nature to both learn from and enjoy imitative works of art, but Aristotle further suggests that suffering can be an important element to a dramatic story.
MUSINGS: We suffer because we desire. That is what Gautama Buddha teaches us. The solution he offers to end suffering is remarkably similar to that offered by Aristotle: “wisdom.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Not only does this appeal to the less savory side of human nature, but it also helps us face what both terrifies and fascinates us: death.
MUSINGS: The #1 prevailing theme of Shakespeare’s Sonnets is “death” – its relentless coming, the fragility of beauty under its shadows, and the inevitability of it all, no matter how hard we may labor to escape. Shakespeare’s answer was to achieve immortality by creating immortal works of art. “So long as men can breathe” or “eyes can see” his words, he’d be alive – in our imagination, and in our hearts.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Throughout the Poetics, Aristotle suggests that in his day, watching a hero suffer is what the audience paid for when it went to the theater. Granted, modern dramatics have evolved so that they can hold the audience's attention through more subtle and less macabre plot lines, but this principle still holds true.
MUSINGS: The #1 spectator sport for Londeners during Shakespeare’s days was “bear-baiting.” In fact, the fighting venues were established by the same people (Philip Henslowe) who ran theaters. Screenplay shouldn’t rely on “Spectacle” to convey emotion, but it should be “Spectacular” in every way – in words, in sentiment, and in conflict.
TIERNO writes:
  1. Vicariously experiencing the hero’s suffering, as well as the final cathartic release, is a major part of how drama works.
vicarious: experienced in the imagination through feelings or actions of another person.
MUSINGS: Venomous shouts of Hamlet clamor for night’s attention – who’s there? It’s MacBeth, his hand soused in the blood of his kinsman. And awakes Juliet in her lover’s tomb, heart abridged for keen man-spear.
TIERNO writes:
  1. In much of Aristotle’s philosophy, he alludes to the belief that we are simultaneously animals and higher spiritual beings. Our desire to develop our intelligent and rational side is counterbalanced with our animalistic pleasure in watching suffering and death.
MUSINGS: Brothels on the bank, canvas cookbooths in Smithfield during summertime, and bands of rogues and vagabonds roaming the countryside.
TIERNO writes:
  1. The key to great screenplays (think Gladiator) is finding a way to combine both elements so each side of our human nature is satisfied.
MUSINGS: Shakespeare was particularly adroit at addressing both “bestial” and “noble” sides of human nature. The former, by lower-class Characters opening Acts with comedic discussions of that nature. The latter, at crucial life-or-death moments by noble tongue.
33. Aristotle Took Comedy Seriously
TIERNO writes:
  1. First of all, Aristotle tells us in the excerpt that there must be “bad” persons. He doesn’t mean “evil” persons, but lowlifes — goofy or laughable people. Aristotle knew that if morality got too heavy in a comic story, the audiences might not laugh.
MUSINGS: Comedy should avoid raising moral eyebrows. That is why racism, sexism, and lookism are never funny. Dave Chappele’s point is not to spew hatred towards a particular demographic, but to show how “goofy or laughable” he, and by extension, “we the people” are.
TIERNO writes:
  1. So it’s not just acceptable in comedy to have double plotting, sub-plotting, even episodic plotting, it’s a necessary part of comedic structure. It’s better to keep comedy loose.
MUSINGS: Comedy should live on the “spur of the moment.” It should be “momentous” rather than “cumulative.” Shakespeare’s favorite comedic tool was “misunderstanding.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Comedy uses the tools of the dramatic structure but it shapes a looser and more episodic plot so the jokes can carry it. The tight tragic structure in some ways adds too much tension for humor.
MUSINGS: Humor functions similarly as catharsis: a “release” of pent-up emotions. In Freud’s view, jokes are also “civilized” ways to indicate displeasure at some “transgression” – real or perceived. As in Tragedy, there must be “relief” in Comedy.
Closing Comments: Use the Principles from the Poetics to Play with and Against the Audience’s Expectations
TIERNO writes:
  1. The hardest aspect of writing this book was that every time I wrote about a screenwriting principle from the Poetics, a movie would immediately pop into my head that defied it... I could go on and on cataloging how some great movies seem to work against the principles of dramatic structure, but you get the point. You’ve got to know the rules in order to break them.”
MUSINGS: To be “unconventional”, you must first know what the “conventions” are. Picasso drew like a normal painter before he became “Picasso.” Aristotle believed that “mastery” was achieved through repeated practice and eventual habituation - “you’re rewarded in public for what you spend years practicing in private.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. There is nothing more delightful on earth than reading a screenplay that breaks the “rules” and works. That’s the point of studying the principles, to give you flexibility.
MUSINGS: “Genius” is making the familiar seem strange. To “connect the dots” as Steve Jobs urged, you must first know where dapples dab. For Screenwriters, they lie in “classics.”
TIERNO writes:
  1. Bare your soul in a simple, easy-to-understand way that, because of its sheer honesty, will be more unique than any flavor of the moment you have chosen to write your screenplay about.
MUSINGS: This must be what Hollywood means when they say they’re looking for Screenplay with a “Voice” – complete honesty. And what Hemingway meant by: “The most essential gift for a good writer is a built-in, shockproof, shit detector.” Don’t lie – always tell the “truth.”
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